Assalamu alaikum warahmatullah,
MashaAllah we began going over Imam Nawawi’s forty hadith today. This collection of hadith is well known in the Muslim world and is said to provide a very good overview of the deen of Islam. We covered a short bio of the imam, the introduction to his collection and hadith number 1 and 37. Below will be a summary of some of our discussion (apologies in advance, it is very hard to note down the entire discussion here)
Bio of Imam Nawawi
A very well referenced bio of Imam Nawawi is found here and you can also find a wikipedia entry on Imam Nawawi.
Introduction to his collection
Mainly dealing with why the scholars have made collections of hadith, and that Imam Nawawi in his collection attempts to collect hadith together that provide a good overview of Islam. Also that all the hadith in his collection are ‘sound’ (hasan), i.e., strong narrations and the majority are found in the Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim (the most rigourous collections of hadith).
Here is the Introduction in English
Praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds. Eternal Guardian of the heavens and the earths, Disposer of all created beings, Despatcher of Messengers (may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon them all) who were sent to those they have been entrusted to guide and to reveal the religious laws to, with positive signs and clear-cut proofs. I praise Him for His favours and ask Him to increase His grace and generosity. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah alone, He having no associate, the One, the Subduer, the Generous, the Pardoner, and I bear witness that our master Muhammed is His servant and His messenger, His dear one and His beloved, the best of created beings, who was honoured with the precious Quran, the enduring miracle through the passing of the years, and with the sunnahs that enlighten spiritual guides; our master Muhammed, singled out for pithiness of speech and tolerance in religion may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon him, upon the rest of the prophets and messengers, and upon all their families and upon the rest of godly persons. To proceed: It has been transmitted to us on the authority of Ali bin Abi Talib, Abdullah bin Masud, Muadh bin Jabal, Abu Al-Darda, Ibn Omar, Ibn Abbas, Anas bin Malik, Abu Hurairah and Abu Saeed Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with them all, through many chains of authorities and in various versions, that the messenger of Allah said: “Whosoever memorises and preserves for my people forty hadith relating to their religion, Allah will resurrect him on the Day of Judgment in the company of jurists and religious scholars “. In another version it reads: “Allah will resurrect him as a jurist and religious scholar “. In the version of Abu Al-Darda it reads: “On the Day of Judgment I shall be an intercessor and a witness for him”. In the version of Ibn Masud it reads: “It will be said to him: Enter by whichever of the doors of Paradise you wish “. In the version of Ibn Omar it reads: ” He will be written down in the company of the religious scholars and will be resurrected in the company of the martyrs “. Scholars of hadith are agreed that it is a weak hadith despite its many lines of transmission. The religious scholars, may Allah be pleased with them, have composed innumerable works in this field. The first one I knew of who did so was Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak, followed by Ibn Aslam Al-Tusi, the godly scholar, then Al-Hasan bin Sufiyan Al-Nasai, Abu Bakr Al-Ajurri, Abu-Bakr Mubammad bin Ibrahim Al-Asfihani, Al-Daraqutni, Al-Hakim, Abu Nuaim, Abu Abd Al-Rahman Al-Sulami, Abu Saeed Al-Malini, Abu Uthman Al-Saboni, Abdullah bin Muhammed Al-Ansari, Abu Bakr Al-Baihaqi, and countless others, both ancient and modern. I have asked Allah Almightly for guidance in bringing together forty hadith in emulation af those eminant religious leaders and guardians of Islam. Religious scholars are agreed it is permissible to put into practice a weak hadith if virtuous deeds are concerned; despite this, I do not rely on this hadith but on his having said the [ following ] sound hadith: “Let him who was a witness among you inform him who was absent” , and on his having said : “May Allah make radiant [the face of] someone who has heard what I have said, has learnt it by heart and has transmitted it as he heard it” . Furthermore, there were some religious scholars who brought together forty hadiths on the basic rules of religion, on subsidiary matters, or on jihad, while others did so on asceticism, on rules of conduct or on sermons. All these are godly aims-may Allah be pleased with those who pursued them. I, however, considered it best to bring together forty hadith more important than all of these, being forty hadith which would incolporate all of these, each hadith being one of the great precepts of religion, described by religious scholars as being “the axis of Islam ” or “the half of Islam” or “the third of it “, or the like, and to make it a rule that these forty hadith be [classified as] sound and that the majority of them be in the sahihs of Al-Bukhari and Muslim. I give them without the chains of authorities so as to make it easier to memorise them and to make them of wider benefit if Allah Almighty wills, and I append to them a section explaining abstruse expressions.(Note here) every person wishing to attain the Hereafter should know these hadith because of the important matters they contain and the directions they give in respect of all forms of obedience, this being obvious to anyone who has reflected upon it. On Allah do I rely and depend and to Him do I entrust myself; to Him be praise and grace, and with Him is success and immunity [to errors].
Hadith we covered today
- We covered the first and the thirty seventh hadith, both deal with Intention.
The first hadith.
إنَّمَا الأَعْمَالُ بِالنِّياَّتِ وَإنمَّاَ لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ مَا نَوَى، فَمَنْ كَانَتْ هِجْرَتُهُ إِلَى اللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ فَهِجْرَتُهُ إِلَى اللهِ وَرَسُولِهِ، وَمَنْ كَانَتْ هِجْرَتُهُ لِدُنْياَ يُصِيْبُهَا أَوِ امْرَأَةٍ يَنْكِحُهَا فَهِجْرَتُهُ إِلَى مَا هَاجَرَ إِلَيْه
رَوَاهُ البُخَارِيُّ وَمُسْلِمٌ
It is narrated on the authority of Amirul Mu’minin, Abu Hafs ‘Umar bin al-Khattab, radiyallahu ‘anhu, who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam, say:
“Actions are (judged) by motives (niyyah), so each man will have what he intended. Thus, he whose migration (hijrah) was to Allah and His Messenger, his migration is to Allah and His Messenger; but he whose migration was for some worldly thing he might gain, or for a wife he might marry, his migration is to that for which he migrated.”
We discussed this hadith in some depth elaborating on the need for right intention in all we do. Also we noted that intention is hidden between Allah and the slave, that is, no one knows your true intention but you and Allah, and therefore it is protected.
We also read from a detailed tafseer found here.
The 37th hadith
إِنَّ اللهَ كَتَبَ الْحَسَنَاتِ وَالسَّيِّئَاتِ، ثُمَّ بَيَّنَ ذلِكَ: فَمَنْ هَمَّ بِحَسَنَةٍ فَلَمْ يَعْمَلْهَا كَتَبَهَا اللهُ عِنْدَهُ حَسَنَةً كَامِلَةً، وَإِنْ هَمَّ بِهَا فَعَمِلَهَا كَتَبَهَا اللهُ عِنْدَهُ عَشْرَ حَسَنَاتٍ إِلَى سَبْعُمِائَةِ ضِعْفٍ إِلَى أَضْعَافٍ كَثِيرَةٍ، وَإِنْ هَمَّ بِسَيِّئَةٍ فَلَمْ يَعْمَلْهَا كَتَبَهَا اللهُ عِنْدَهُ حَسَنَةً كَامِلَةً، وَإِنْ هَمَّ بِهَا فَعَمِلَهَا كَتَبَهَا اللهُ سَيِّئَةً وَاحِدَةً
رَوَاهُ الْبُخَارِيُّ وَمُسْلِمٌ
Ibn Abbas, radiyallahu ‘anhu, reported that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ‘alayhi wasallam, related from his Lord (glorified and exalted be He):
“Verily Allah has recorded the good deeds and the evil deeds.” Then he clarified that: “Whosoever intends to do a good deed but does not do it, Allah records it with Himself as a complete good deed; but if he intends it and does it, Allah records it with Himself as ten good deeds, up to seven hundred times, or more than that. But if he intends to do an evil deed and does not do it, Allah records it with Himself as a complete good deed; but if he intends it and does it, Allah records it down as one single evil deed.”[Al-Bukhari & Muslim]
In this hadith we talked about the mercy and kindness of Allah, andAllah azza wa’jal really wants us to enter Paradise. For Allah’s loving kindness and help to do good is apparent in the working of the hadith. Also we noted how when Allah records a good deed, He, exalted and praised be He, says ‘complete’ denoting it’s importance and says it is recorded with ‘Himself’, denoting Allah’s special grace upon it. And when speaking of the bad deed it is simple stated as being ‘one’ and Allah does not say it is with ‘Himself’. SubhahanaAllah! Allah is trully the most kind and merciful.
This hadith is considered to be hadith Qudsi by some scholars.
We used the same commentary as before to discuss this hadith as well.
Here are links to material used here;
Imam Nawawi’s 40 hadith
Each hadith with beautiful recitation http://islamicemirate.com/resources/hadith-collection/40-hadith-nawawi.html
Hadith commentary by Dr. Jamal Badi here
InshaAllah I will email out the PDF for the 40 ahadith and Dr. Badi’s commentary.